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Habitat Restoration

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Project sites in the Salish Sea where site-specific applications of FVCOM based hydrodynamic models were developed as part of restoration feasibility or environmental assessment and design efforts. These applications included stand-alone as well high-resolution sub-basin applications embedded within SSM.

Estuarine and coastal hydrodynamic processes are sometimes neglected in the design and planning of nearshore restoration actions. Despite best intentions, efforts to restore nearshore habitats can result in poor outcomes if water circulation and transport are not properly addressed. Land-use constraints can lead to selection of suboptimal restoration alternatives that may result in undesirable consequences, such as flooding, deterioration of water quality, and erosion, that require immediate remedies and costly repairs. Quantitative models designed for application to the nearshore environment can minimize uncertainty about restoration goals, such as recovery of tidal exchange, supply of sediment and nutrients, and establishment of fish migration pathways. The Salish Sea Model (SSM) including Puget Sound, in the state of Washington, was developed based on an unstructured grid framework specifically to provide the ability to define the complex shoreline. A high-resolution version of the model developed by PNNL is described by Yang and Khangaonkar (2010) and Khangaonkar and Yang (2011).

Prior to development of basin-wide models such as SSM, numerous sub-basin-scale models were developed. These models were intended to assist with nearshore habitat restoration design and analysis, and to answer the question, “Can we achieve beneficial restoration outcomes at small scale, as well as estuary-wide.” Examples of restoration projects in the area illustrate the utility of the models in conducting feasibility assessments through simulation of important nearshore processes such as circulation in complex multiple tidal channels, wetting and drying of tide flats, and water quality and sediment transport.

Nisqually Estuary

Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge

Skagit Estuary

Cottonwood Island

Crescent Harbor

McGlinn Island Causeway

Pocket Estuaries: Whidbey Basin

Rawlins Road

Skagit Delta

Snohomish Estuary

Snohomish River

Stillaguamish Estuary

Leque Island and zis a ba (Phases 1 – 3)
Port Susan Bay

Multi-Estuary

Cumulative Effects of Nearshore Restoration on Habitat and Fish Migration in Northern Puget Sound, Washington